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Other open source application servers also have started using Tomcat as their embedded servlet engine. With the shift of focus in enterprise Java development toward more lightweight architecture and tools, Tomcat has grown to become the deployment platform of choice for business-critical enterprise Java applications. In the world of technology, changes are introduced quickly, and yesterday s new ideas are the legacy systems of tomorrow.
Although Tomcat is still a leading open source servlet container, a lot has changed in Java web technologies since version 4.
The biggest change was Java Servlet specification, which advanced to version 3. This book is based on the original text by James Goodwill, and the concepts and structure of the original book have been kept where possible. However, where the changes to Tomcat architecture and Java Servlet specification have been too great, the text was changed significantly, and some chapters have been entirely rewritten.
In addition, some of the chapters from the original book have been removed, because they are now outdated. Instead, new chapters, covering up-to-date Tomcat concepts and Java web technologies, have been included. All code and configuration examples have been either updated to use up-to-date Tomcat 7 and Servlet API 3 syntax and structure, or have been entirely replaced to match the architectural changes to the underlying technology.
This book will be useful to the reader who is familiar with Java, but new to servlet development with Tomcat. That s why it contains an introduction to the development of Java web applications using servlets and JSPs.
Server administrators new to Tomcat 7 also will find a lot of useful information in this book related to Tomcat management and configuration tasks.
It was not the aim of the authors to provide a detailed Tomcat reference covering all aspects of Tomcat configuration. The authors did try to write a book that introduces Tomcat in the context of web application development, so that readers can implement, deploy, and manage their Java web applications using Apache Tomcat 7 server.
This is a practical guide to Apache Tomcat, with a lot of realworld examples and solutions to common problems in web application development and deployment. We hope you will find this book useful in your day-to-day experience with Tomcat that would mean it has served its purpose.
Throughout this chapter, we Describe the Apache Tomcat architecture Discuss the requirements for installing and configuring Tomcat Describe the steps of installing and configuring Tomcat Test your Tomcat installation At the end of this chapter, you will understand the Tomcat architecture, have an instance of Tomcat server installed and running on your computer, and have a sample web application displayed in your browser.
It was created under the Apache-Jakarta subproject; however, due to its popularity, it is now hosted as a separate Apache project, where it is supported and enhanced by a group of volunteers from the open source Java community. Apache Tomcat is very stable and has all of the features of a commercial web application container yet comes under Open Source Apache License. Tomcat also provides additional functionality that makes it a great choice for developing a complete web application solution.
Some of the additional features provided by Tomcat other than being open source and free include the Tomcat Manager application, specialized realm implementations, and Tomcat valves.
Currently supported versions on Apache Tomcat are 5.
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Versions earlier than 5. So, Tomcat 5. The JVM compatibility also depends on the version chosen. However, most of the content can be applied to versions 5. Some of the provided functionality includes the ability to install, start, stop, remove, and report on web applications.
Chapter 4 covers the details of the Tomcat Manager web application. Specialized Realm Implementations Tomcat provides container-managed security methods for protecting resources within the container. These databases of users that can be authenticated by the container are called realms.
We will cover two types of realms supported by Tomcat in more detail: MemoryRealm, where user information is simply read from a file and stored in memory, and JDBCRealm, which uses relational database to store users.
You can read more about realms with examples in Chapter 6.
Tomcat Valves Tomcat valves are a technology introduced with Tomcat 4, and available in all later versions. Valves allow you to associate an instance of a Java class with a particular Catalina container. The configured valve class is then acting as a preprocessor for all requests coming to the container. Servlet API defines similar functionality in form of Filters. We will also discuss the differences between valves and servlet filter implementation in Chapter 8.
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Further Information Throughout this book, we will discuss all of these Tomcat-specific features, and a lot of other features that are common to all web application containers.
This page contains all of the mailing lists controlled by the Apache Tomcat project. Once you are on the mailing lists page, you can choose the list that you re interested in. In addition to the official documentation and mailing lists from the Apache Tomcat Project web site, you can find useful information on a number of web sites and forums online. We d like to recommend www.
The Architecture of Tomcat A Tomcat instance, or server, is the top-level component in Tomcat s container hierarchy. Note You can still run multiple instances on same physical box, but as separate Java processes running on separate network ports.
The key component in that hierarchy is the Catalina servlet engine. Tomcat 7 implements Servlet API 3. Listing provides an XML representation of the relationships between the different Tomcat containers. Listing Tomcat architecture with main components This instance can be broken down into a set of containers including a server, a service, a connector, an engine, a host, and a context. By default, each of these containers is configured using the server. It represents the entire Catalina servlet engine and is used as a top-level element for a single Tomcat instance.
Installing and Configuring Tomcat In this section, we install Tomcat as a standalone server, which means that Tomcat will service all requests, including static content, JSPs, and servlets.
Before continuing with the installation steps, let s take a look at the prerequisites for Tomcat installation. Requirements for Installing and Configuring Tomcat Before we get started performing the tasks outlined by this chapter, you need to download the items listed in Table Table You should choose the appropriate downloads based on your operating system.
We cover the steps involved in installing to both Windows and Linux. Since we re using Tomcat 7, we will need JDK 1. To download Java, just type download Java in your favorite web search engine, and follow the top result link. Tomcat 7 comes with easy-to-use executable Windows installer, which will do all tasks explained in previous section automatically.
Tomcat Windows installer interface is very similar to any other Windows installer.
Follow the steps, choose the installation location, and the installer will take care of extracting and copying files to correct directory, and configuring Environment variables and service properties.
Figure shows the running Tomcat installer for Windows. Figure The Windows installer will install Tomcat 7 as a Windows Service automatically, so the Tomcat can be started automatically on Windows start-up, and run in the background as a Windows Service.
Manually Installing on Windows If you want to control all aspects of Tomcat installation, manage the environment variables required for Tomcat to run and configure your system so you have easy command line access to your Tomcat server, you will need to install Tomcat manually.
For a manual Tomcat installation, you will need to have installed and configured Java Runtime Environment. To check whether Java is configured correctly, run your version of Java from the Windows command prompt. You should get the full version of the installed JDK.
Setup - How to install and run Apache Tomcat on a variety of platforms. First web application - An introduction to the concepts of a web application as defined in the Servlet Specification.
Deployer - Operating the Apache Tomcat Deployer to deploy, precompile, and validate web applications. Manager - Operating the Manager web app to deploy, undeploy, and redeploy applications while Apache Tomcat is running. Realms and Access Control - Description of how to configure Realms databases of users, passwords, and their associated roles for use in web applications that utilize Container Managed Security.
Security Manager - Configuring and using a Java Security Manager to support fine-grained control over the behavior of your web applications. Examples for many popular databases.
Classloading - Information about class loading in Apache Tomcat, including where to place your application classes so that they are visible. Default Servlet - Configuring the default servlet and customizing directory listings. Balancer - Configuring, using, and extending the load balancer application. Connectors - Connectors available in Apache Tomcat, and native web server integration.
Logging - Configuring logging in Apache Tomcat. Apache Portable Runtime - Using APR to provide superior performance, scalability and better integration with native server technologies.
Virtual Hosting - Configuring virtual hosting in Apache Tomcat. Security Considerations - Options to consider when securing an Apache Tomcat installation. Windows Authentication - Configuring Tomcat to use integrated Windows authentication.Further Information Throughout this book, we will discuss all of these Tomcat-specific features, and a lot of other features that are common to all web application containers.
Tomcat architecture with main components This instance can be broken down into a set of containers including a server, a service, a connector, an engine, a host, and a context.
In this chapter, we: Describe the Tomcat directory structure Introduce the structure of Java web applications that can be deployed to Tomcat Manually deploy web applications to Tomcat Configure Tomcat s hosts and contexts components Use Eclipse IDE to deploy sample web application to Tomcat The Tomcat Directory Structure Before you can start creating your own web applications, you need to be familiar with the Tomcat directory structure.
It was not the aim of the authors to provide a detailed Tomcat reference covering all aspects of Tomcat configuration. High availability[ edit ] A high-availability feature has been added to facilitate the scheduling of system upgrades e. Apache Tomcat version 9. Deployer - Operating the Apache Tomcat Deployer to deploy, precompile, and validate web applications. Introduction - A brief, high level, overview of Apache Tomcat. If you have trouble and need help, read Find Help page and ask your question on the tomcat-users mailing list.